It is not a time of dramatic changes. This is a year of power and accomplishment. Actively seeking to expand, taking educated risks, and moving forward are highlighted. This is a year of opportunity, particularly in the material and business world, and opportunities need to be seized.
This is a problem-solving year in which you can expect real, tangible results. Advice — take action, plan ahead, seize opportunities. January , March , July , September On-again, off-again attraction. This is a complex connection, and you make an odd yet interested couple. April , June , October , December A mysterious attraction that can be very romantic…or completely platonic!
Push me, pull me. You could complement each other well if you allow yourselves to learn from each other, or you could actively war against each other. May Attraction of the soul; challenging, intense, rich, and binding. September October 4, December Powerful, tumultuous attraction —you are aware of the distinct differences between you, but may be drawn to each other because of the simultaneous awareness of a need and a lack.
February , March , June , August , September , November , December Creative, communicative, inspiring, and spiritually rewarding connections. January , April , June , August September 2. The card associated with your birthday is the Eight of Clubs. Your mind is very strong and powerful, sometimes to the point of obsession! You can easily become fixated on one particular thing or feeling.
If you pour your focus and determination into a particular life path or goal, your chances of success are great. With self-discipline, you can achieve anything you set your mind upon. Your love card is the Four of Spades. You are attracted to, or you attract, hard-working, intelligent partners. This is surprisingly accurate! Especially the part about the color purple! And to the person above, I completelyy agree about the purple! Otherwise, scary accurate… and I hope I am not the only one who had a strange sense of happy at seeing the imagery with the woman, the curtains and the unknown path.
How cool was that! I am scorpio and my birthday is Nov 12th, I love purple, red colors and burgandy. This astrology stuff is pretty acurate to me. My boss is a male scorpio and can be more stubborn that myself. We are proud people!! Tonya — same — love purple but mostly wear black. Hi there, its amazingly very true. God bless U. And I always get caught up and I can either be happy or totally sad. It was good. Actually at that time very much of frustrated about my future,need some help. Am here to know more about my life and way forward on like financially,my destiny wife and to overcome all any kind of enemy.
Very strange. Does that mean I can look at Nov 11 and 12 birthday reports? That part is confusing to me. Lol Burgundy accents in my living room, and yeah I Love Purple! And stubborn determined and either you love me or hate me. Oh and hate superficial people. She sang a favorite song of my parents that was played their 50 the. Newton, Isaac. Nursing Eao, A. Oates, E. Sittang Canal. GoYt, of India, Home Department.
Oldham, Thomas, ll. Eldon place, Muglg, England. Olpherts, W. J,, c. Parker, J. Parry, Eobert, Professor, Presidency College. Care of Me. Peal, S. Pearse, Lieut. Pearson, C. Bawul Bindi. Pellew, Fleetwood Hugo, c. Peppe, T. Peters, C. T,, m. Bombay Bresidency. Peterson, F. Phayre, Lieut. Mauritius, Phear, Sir J. Pickford, J. Porter, W. Prannath Sarasvati, Pandit, m. Bort Blair, N. R, Dec. Bai, Pramatlianath Raja. JDigapatL Raye, D. GaleiUtck Rees, J. AllaJiahad, Reid, James Robert, c. Eivett-Camac, John Henry, g. Robb, Gordon.
Galcutta, Robertson, Charles, c. Rodon, Lieut. JDera Ghazi Khan. Sandford, W. Sastri, Sashagiri M. Schlieh, Dr, W. Schwendler, L. Care of Messrs. Scott, Ross, c. Scully, Dr. Shaw, R. Waltair, Jiear Vhagapatam. I Showers, Major-G. Charles Lionel. Singh, Giriprasad, Thakur. Sinha, Balaichancl, Babu.
Singha, Pratapananiyan, Deputy Magt. Sirkar, Mahendralai, Dr. Skrefsrud, Rev. Ldnika, Smithal Purgamiahs. Sladen, Lieut. Smidt, John. Smith, David Boyes, M. Smith, Vincent Arthur, c. Settlement Officer. Bur niah. E, Jtily 3. I May 2. Stephen, Carr, B. Ludianah, Stewart, E, D. John, Major Oliver Beauchamp, b. Calcutta, Stubbs, Lieut. Luclmoio, Sutherland, Henry Cobbe, K. Calmita, Tagore, Gunendranath, Babu.
Calcutta, Tawney, C. Calcutta, Taylor, E. Uurope, Taylor, Commander A. Calcutta, Temple, The Hon. Sir E. Calcutta, Thihaut, Dr. Sanskrit College. JBenares, Thomson, A. Faizahad, Thomson, Eohert George, c. Karml, Fang ah, Thuiliier, Major-G. Care of JAessrs, Grindlag and Go. Hooper, o, s. Furope, Treiffitz, Oscar. Care of JAcssts, F, F. FcillioTn and Co. Kangra, Trevor, William Spottiswoode, Lient. Chief Engr. Rangoon, Turiibull, Eohert, Secretary to the Corporation. Calcutta, Maharajah dur. Garden Reach, Benares. Date of Election. Waldie, David, p, a. Walker, Col. James T.
Wall, Dr. Alfred John, B, Medical Service. Oalmita, Waller, Walter Kerr, m.
Waterhouse, Capt. James, b. Surveyor General. Watt, Dr. Webb, W. Dacca College. Westland, James, c. Westmacott, Edward Yesey, b. DJurope, Wheeler, James Talboys. White, IBdmond, o. Joint Magistrate and Collector. Whiteway, Eichard Stephen, c. Whitty, Irvine John, Supdt. Qiridliiy JE. Wilcox, F. Joint Mag. Williamson, Capt. William John, Offig. Wilson, Alexander.
Wilson, Eobert Henry, b. Wise, Dr. Bostellan, County CorK Ire- land. Wood, Dr. Julius John, Supdt, of Vaccination. MdncJii, Wood, C. Wood-Mason, James. King and Cfe. Woodthorpe, Lieut. Eobert Gosset, n. Sir John Pbillippart. London, July 1. Professor Isaac Lea. Munro, London. His Highness the KawablsTazini of Bengal.
MurshidaLad Eeb. Hooker, e. Professor Henry. Princeton, U. Sir H. C, Eawlinson, k, c. London, July 6. W, Cohile, Kt. Professor Max Milller. Oirford, Not. Monsieur Stanislas Jiilien. Edward Thomas. Dr, Aloys Sprenger. Albrecht Weber. General A. Cunningham, c. Professor Bdpu Deva Sastri. Charles Darwin. Sir G.
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London Nov. Westwood, Oxford, April 5. Yule, Col. Siemens, Dr. Berlin, Jan. John Muir. Pdinlnrgh, Oct. Macgowan, Dr. Kramer, Herr A. Alexandria, 3. Porter, Rev. J, Damascus, 4. Scblagintweit, Herr H. Smith, Dr. Beyrout, 4. Tailor, J Esq. Bussorah, 4, Nietner, J. Scblagintweit, Herr R. Giessen, 2. Frederick, Dr. Batavia, 4. Bleeker, Dr. Baker, The Rev. M, Malahar, 3. Goscbe, Dr, R. Murray, A. London, 4. Barnes, R. Ceylon, 7. Scblagintweit, Prof. E, von. Munich 7. Sherring, Rev. A, Benares, 5.
Holmbde, Prof. Dali, Bev. Sebaumburgb, J. Lafont, Eev. Bate, Bev. Maulawi Abdul Hai, Madrasah. Allan, Barclay, Campbell, Sir W. Elliott, Sir J. Fayrer, Sir T. F orsy th, Haughton, Leonard, Macnamara, Pearse, Waagen, By Betibemeot. Babu Bhagabaticharan Mallik. Calcutta, W. Bruce, Esq. Calcutta, T. Coxhead, Esq. Tijperali, The Bev. Daukes, Esq. Calcutta, CaiDt. Calcutta, Col. Calcutta, A. Hughes, Esq. Calcutta, Dr. Qalmtta, a Nevill, S. Pell, Esq. Schlegel, Esq. Calcutta, D. Scott, Esq. Guttach, Lt. By Death. Ordinary Ilemlers, J. Geoghegan, Esq. Bombay, Bahu Yrindabaiichaiidra Mandala.
Swiiiboe, E. Calcutta, Proceeding, As. Bengal, 1S Mitra, Bai Bahadtir, C. The minutes of the last Meeting were read and conlirmed. The following pi-esentations were announced — 1. Prom Signor 0. Prom the Government of India, copies of the following works by H. Blanford, Esq. I, II. Tables for the reduction of Meteorological Observations in India. The following gentlemen, duly proposed and seconded at the last Meeting, were elected Ordinary Members — Lieutenant H.
Sawyer, B. Alexander Ward, Esq. Thuillier, C. Prinsep, G. Blan- ford, Esq. Locie, Esq. Tbe Pev. Chard and Manockjee Bustomjee, Esq. The Chaibmjjst reported that the Council had transferred Es. Of the sum forming the Permanent Eeserve Pund Es. Tbe Chaibmajs' also reported that tbe Council bad appointed Mr. Blanford — On the Geology of 8m3. Sin E. Baxley, K. Blaotord exhibited the Geological map of Sind recently - completed, and gave the following account of the Geology of the Province, which had been mapped in the course of the last three years by Mr.
Fedden and himself. The greater jDortion of Sind, including all the richer and more popu- lous parts of the province, consists of the alluvial fiat of the Indus, and is a portion of the great Indo-Gangetic plain of northern India. But to the west of the river, at a variable distance, barren rocky hills arise, in upper Sind consisting chiefly of a great north and south range, known as the Hhirthar, which separates Sind from the Kelat territory, or Baldchistdn, and in lower Sind, south of Sehwan, of several minor ranges, having a general north and south direction.
The Geology of the province is singularly simple, faults being rare, whilst the disturbance of the rocks is just sufficient to aflcord good sections, with- out rendering the relations of the beds so complicated as to be difficult to trace. Such was, in brief, the information available when the Survey was com- menced, and the result of a more thorough investigation has naturally added much without depriving the earlier information of its value. J Ann. Geol, Soc. II Yol. Tbe beds of Sind are now classi- fied thus in descending order. Stipposed Memarhs. Nari upper lower to lower miocene?
Kbirtbar upper lower 6. Eanikot to eocene ISTummulitie limestone. Tbe base not determined. Traps 40 to 90 8. J beds I Sandstones Hippuritic limestone to upper cretace Eepresentative ous of Deccan and Malwa trap cretaceous base not ex- posed.
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Tbe finest sections are exposed in tbe Kbirtbar range in Dpper Sind, and from this range tbe name applied to tbe nummulitie limestone, which always forms tbe highest part of tbe bills, has been taken. Some 10, feet of these lower beds are exposed, no base being seen, but nummulitie and other fossils were only found in tbe higher beds, tbe lower or feet being unfossiiiferous. Blanford — On the Geology of Sind. This range is sometimes spoken of as the Laki range, from the village of Laki, near the northern extremity.
It appears to be part of the Hala range of Vicary and others, but the Hala range of the old maps included the Khirthar and several other ranges, and no dis- tinct chain of hills is known by any such name in the country. Each separate joeak of this range has its own name, no general term being applied to the whole.
In this Laki range, however, beneath the nummulitic limestone, the lower eocene and cretaceous beds just noticed are well exposed. The massive nummulitic limestone, so conspicuous to the north- ward, becomes broken up into thinner beds iiitercalated with clays and sands, and finally disappears, and the higher tertiary groups all tend to 2 ass into each other. The lowest bed seen in the province, the TTippuritic Limestone, has only been found in one spot, and there the outcrop does not occupy much more than about half a mile in length.
The only recognizable fossil found was a Hippurite. It is probable that this limestone is identical with tlie cre- taceous limestone, which occupies a large area in Persia, and which has been traced at intervals from south-east of Karman to the neighbourhood of Tehran. If so, this is the first time that the formation has been recognized , in India, except in the Himalayas. The bed consists of pale-coloured hard limestone, very gritty and sandy above, purer beneath. Above the limestone there is a considerable thickness of dark-coloured sandstones, often of a purplish tint and frequently rather calcareous.
These beds are not very fossiliferous, hut towards the top they contain oysters and a few hones, apparently reptilian. The next beds in ascending order consist of olive clays, shales and sand- stone, frequently abounding in fossils, the most important being a pecu- liarly globose Gardita, Q. The Oardita is allied to cretaceous species, and so is one, at least, of the Nautili. The thin hand of basaltic trap resting upon the Oardita Beammnti clays, although less than feet thick, is almost certainly identical with the great Deccan and Malwa trap formation, which covers so enormous an area in "Western India, and which extends from Western Chutia Nagpur as far as Kaehh.
The belt in Sind has been traced for about 22 miles, always occupying the same position above the olive clays and beneath the f- G W. Elanford— Ulc Geology of Sind, lowest; tertiary beds. This trap is therefore clearly contemporaneous and not intrusive, and its geological position at the base of the very lowest eocene rocks, and immediately above cretaceous strata, corresponds exactly with the place in the series already assigned to the formation where far more fully develojoed in Malwa and Guzerat.
The Eanikot group consists of variegated sandstones and shales, with some bands of highly fossiliferous brown limestone in the upper strata. In the lower portion of the group only imperfect plant remains are found, a few dicotyledonous leaves being the only recognizable impressions, but the limestone abounds in Mollusoa, JEoliinodermaU, and Foraminifera. The beds hitherto noticed are confined to lower Sind, all except the Eanikot group being restricted to the Laki range, whilst the latter covers a considerable tract of country near Kotri and Tatta.
The Eanikot beds in this part of the country are succeeded immediately in ascending order by the Khirthar ISTummulitic limestone, which is locally unconformable, but generally appears to pass down into the underlying group. To the west of the Khirthar range however, on the Upper Gaj, as already mentioned, a succession of argillaceous limestones, shales and sandstones, resting upon unfossiliferous dark shales with limestone bands, is found, and the latter beds appear to be identical with the sup posed nummulitic group, which occupies so large an area in Makran, and which I once traversed throughout the greater part of the country between Gwadar and Jalk.
This same lower Khirthar group, with its charaeteristie unfossiliferous shales and bands of limestone, is also found on the Habb river, west of lower Sind. The nummulitic limestone of the Khirthar group is about feet thick at the Gaj, but apparently thicker to the northward, whilst in lower Bind it gradually thins out, becomes mixed with shales and clays, and towards the Habb.
Where best developed the Khirthar group is hy far the most conspicuous formation in the province, and consists of very massive whitish and grey limestone, abounding in nummulites of several kinds and other fofaminifera, corals and mollusea also occurring. The commonest species are Mmmidites granulosa, iV. The nummulitic limestone not only forms the crest of the Khirthar, but it is the most con- spicuous rock in many of the minor ranges, and fragments derived from it are found in most of the recent and siib-reeent gravels. The latter is very characteristic, being very thin and often of large size, a diameter of two to three inches being not uncommon.
Garansensis there, as in Sind, belongs to the highest beds containing nummulites, and extends into the formations of the lower miocene period. With the brown limestones dark shales are associated, and these gradually pass up into a great thickness of unfossil- iferous sandstones, forming the upper ISTari group. In the Khirthar range there is a sharp change from the Karl sandstones to the limestones of the Graj group, but further south the passage is more gradual, bands of litaestone with marine fossils being found here and there in the upper Kari beds.
The Graj group is highly fossiliferous, but no nummulites have been detected in it : an Or apparently 0. The highest tertiary group, to which the name of Manchhar has been given, is of immense thickness, in places approaching 10, feet from top to bottom. The lower subdivision consists of grey sandstones, with brown, grey and red clays, and a few conglomeratic beds containing fragmentary mammalian bones ; the upper portion is chiefly composed of clays with sub- ordinate beds of sandstone though there is much variation in the relative development of argillaceous and sandy beds and some conglomerates containing pebbles of nummulitic limestone, which have not been observed in the lower portion of the groux5.
Eones are of very rare occurrence in the upper portion of the group. Lydekkeu remarked that the investigation of the Sind Sivalik rocks was gradually bringing to light the remains of a very interesting mammalian fauna which once inhabited that area. Some of these animals belonged to genera which bad been previously known from the eocene and miocene of Europe and America, while others belonged to new genera, which would subsequently be described by the speaker in the Palseoiitologia Indica. Mitba submitted the following remarks on the early life of Asoka.
He said — Of all the ancient Indian monarchs whose monuments have come down to us, the Emperor Asoka was the greatest. His anxiety for the good of his subjects was great, and his edicts show the intelligent interest he took in their welfare. He was, however, the least known by the people in the present day. As a renegade from the religion of his ancestors he was detested by the Hindus, and nowhere noticed in their ancient records; and the Buddhists, whose ranks he joined, having been expelled the country, could not keep his name alive in India.
Tumour of Ceylon belongs the credit of first bringing his name to the notice of European Orientalists ; and the identification by our James Prin- sep of the name with the Piyadasi of the Lat inscriptions, laid tlie groiindn 'work of the historical chronology of ancient India. The next important event in connexion with the history of Asoka was the discovery of the Sanskrit Buddhist Literature of Nepal.
Hodgson, to -whom the speaker referred, collected three sets of MSS. In tKat work the learned savant notices three MSS. According to its name it should contain a hundred legends, bufc the MS. The second work is the Livy a Amdctm, It is a prose work, devoted entirely to the life of Asoka, and Burnouf has supplied a complete translation of it ; but the Library of the Society does not possess a MS. The last is the Ahloa Amdmciy and of it the following is a brief abstract.
It extends to folia, and comprises about ten thousand anushtup verses. The authority quoted is that of a saint nafaed Upa Gupta, the spihtual guide of the king. The first hundred and fire folia of the work are devoted to the life of Asoka, and the rest is made up of tales and anecdotes said to have been related by the saint for the edihcation of his royal pupil, and to iBustrate the inurality of the Bauddha religion.
The lineal descendants of Bimbisara were — 2. In the absence of necessary MSS. Apparently they are. The lists given in the Pali , annals and in tke Yishnu Parana are more seriously discrepant. Mahiimmso, pp. XJdayibhaddbaka, 3. Vidmisara, or Bimbisara. Darbliaka, 7. Ten sons of tlie last, no 9. The Pali names are obviously not so authentic as the Buddhist ones from Nepal. The latter were very early translated into the Chinese, and have therefore better claim to confi- dence. At the same time it should be observed that the omission of the name of Chandragupta from the latter is significant.
The PaK annals make Yindusara the son of Chandragupta. If so, he could not have come from Eajagriha to take possession of his ancestral capital of Patalipjutra. This is, however, not the jplace to enter into a discussion on the subject. According to the work under notice, Yindusara of Eajagriha became the king of Pataliputra, and his eldest son was Susima. The damsel was extraordinarily beauti- ful, and, a soothsayer having foretold that she would be the wife of a great king and mother of a universal monarch, the father made the present with a view to help the prophecy.
The immediate fruit of this presentation did not, however, prove satisfactory to Subhadrangi, Immured in the palace, she was, through the jealousy of the princesses of the zenana, doomed to menial service. Among other low occupations she was ordered to acquire the art of a barber, whereby, she was told, she would gain the goodwill of the king.
When well j roficient in the art, she was ordered by the princess- es to go and shave the king. She did so, and acquitted herself so well that the king offered to grant her any boon she wished. She prayed for his society j but the king denounced her on account of her being of the low caste of a barber. She explained that she was only acting the part of a barber hj order of the princesses of the palace, but that she was a Brah- mani by birth, and had been presented to the king expressly with a view to his marrying her. The king, thus reminded of her history, granted her wish, and made her the chief queen of the palace.
Asoka was the first fruit of this union. He was so named because the mother emancipated herself from her sufferings by his birth, the word meaning griefless. His conduct too was repulsive.
When the prince had attained his majority, his character did not mend ; he was found so troublesome, that it was deemed advisable to get rid of him by deputing him to quell a mutiny which had broken out at Takshasila, at a great distance from the seat of the empire.
His efforts, seconded, according to the text, by a divine declaration resounding in the air and certain celestial arms dropped therefrom for his use, proved successful, and he was well received by the people of that place. In the meantime his elder brother Susima created disturbances at Pataliputra, and offended the chief minister, through whose intrigue he too was sent to Takshasila, and Asoka was recalled therefrom.
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Soon after, the king fell ill, appointed Asoka, through the instigation of the minister but much against his own will, regent during the absence of his eldest son Susima, and died. Asoka was immediately after anoint- ed and placed on the throne. The ministers demurred, and so he himself struck off their heads, and, retiiing to a garden with the ladies of the palace, enjoyed for a time the pleasures of life to the utmost.
The mountaineer, however, soon after met his deserts. Sarthavaha, a rich merchant, had proceeded to sea in the company of a hundred other merchants, and there had a son born unto him, who was named Samudra. On his way hoine, after twelve years, falling into the hands of pirates, he was deprived of his effects, and murdered along with all his companions.
His son Samudra alone escaped, and led the life of a Buddhist beggar. Surprised at it, the mountaineer reported the circumstance to. The king came to see the strange beggar, heard everything from hini; and then cut off the head of the mountaineer. The miracle wrought by the beggar worked on the mind of the king ; and he became attached to the religion of Buddha. By the advice of a Yati named Yasas, he caused a chaitya to be erected at the Kukkuta garden, and deposited in it some relics of Buddha.
He then caused a chaitya and other religious edifices to be erected at Eamagrama. Coming thence to the river Ganges, he was requested by the Hagas to go to their country, and there he caused religious edifices to be erected. By his order the Yakshas erected, on the shores of the sea, ten million stupas for the same purpose. FoL This chronology, however, does not accord with the statement that Asbka was the thirteenth from Bimbisara, a contemporary of Buddha.
His chief queen Pavishyarakshita was, however, annoyed at his forsaking the old family religion, and, finding that she was neglected, employed a secret agent, a Ohandali named Matangi, to destroy the sacred tree. The woman employed her sorcery and medicines to bear on the task, and the tree soon withered up. News of this sad occurrence was brought to Asoka, and he was deeply grieved. The queen tried her utmost to cheer him, but he was inconsolable. At last she employed her secret agent to revive the tree by her magic arts, and this was soon effected.
There- after the king devoted five years to the society of the Buddhist con- gregation. Kunjarakarna, the chief of the rebels, succumbed to the powerful army which followed the prince, and peace was soon restored. The insurrection, however, would appear to be a feint, and the real reason, as in the case of Susima and Asoka himself, was the removal of a troublesome prince from near the throne.
One of his queens named Tisyarakshita, who was a step-mother of the prince, heard of this, and thinking it a good opportunity for her, undertook the superintendence of all business of the court, issuing orders and herself signing and sealing all despatches. She caused a letter to be written to Kunjarakarna and impressed it with the royal signet, directing Kunjarakarna to deprive the prince of his eyesight, as the least of the three evils.
Kunjarakarna was at a loss how to carry out the order. The prince heard of the mandate, and had it duly carried out through the instrumen- tality of a Chaiidala — the task having been held as too cruel to be executed by any person of a higher caste. In the course of his peregrinations he came to Bataliiiutra, and one night took shelter ia the royal ele hant stables, where at midnight he amused himself by playing on a iiute.
Next morning be sent for the musician, and recognised in bim, bis only son. Tbis act of mercy for an enemy brought on a miraculous restoration of bis sight. Tbis renun- ciation of tbe world did not, however, enable bim to escape with bis life. Tbe sight of tbe bead deeply grieved tbe king ; and be sought from IJpa Gupta, bis spiritual guide, religious consolation for bis many acts of cruelty.
Tbe belief, however, bad until lately been general that be was a Hindu, and it was supported by tbe Pdli annals of Ceylon, which describe bim to have followed tbe doctrine of tbe Brahmans. But it must be added that there has not been a single fact adduced which could directly bear upon the early religion of the author of the rock and the Lat edicts. Thomas has care- fully analysed the whole of the edicts, and described at great length their scope and purj ose, but the particular passage to which the speaker referred had been somehow all but entirely overlooked.
The passage refeiTed was the last paragraph of the first Tablet, and in adverting to it, Mr. The philoso- phical character of Jainism allied it very closely to Yedantism, and in that respect it could well pass for a Hindu form of faith. XII, p. But it set itself in antagonism to Hinduism, the old faith of the country,- hj denouncing the Vedas as false, and the sacrifices enjoined in them as mischievous and sinful. A hypertrophy of the feeling of mercy for animated creatures, forms its cardi- nal point.
It might be that originally this feeling was not carried to the absurd extent which resulted, to quote the vivid language of Mr. Thomas, in devices of Hospitals for the suffering members of the brute creation, and ultimately, in after times, progressing into the absurdity of the wearing of respirators and the perpetual waving of fans, to avoid the destruction of minute insect life.
At a time when the Vedic ordinances enjoined hecatombs of cattle as the means of salvation, and the cruel practice of driving wooden spikes into the hearts of the victims as the orthodox mode of slaughter, such a protest was not only needed, but could not but most effectually appeal to the feeling of the public, and ally it on its behalf. As a Hindu, following the canons of the Kalpa Siitras, he could do all that and more most appropriately ; and the presumption therefore would be strong, that he was a Hindu following the Hindu faith when he indulged in those sacrifices, and became a Jain, or a Buddhist, when, in the 10th or 12th year of his reign, he prohibited those sacrifices.
The most impor- tant of these symbols was the svastiJca. It was unquestionably held in great veneration by the Jains ; but, as shewn elsewhere Proceedings for June , it was held in equal esteem by the Hindus, and was well known to, and used by, the Greeks, Eomans, Egyptians, Assyrians and other nations of antiquity. There is nothing to justify it : on the contrary much in their writings to show that they were perfectly familiar with it. Their intercourse with the people of the Coromandel Coast gave them ample opportunities to know the nature of Brahmanism ; and Brahmanism in the South did not, in the 5th century, differ much, if at all, from that of the ISTorth.
As a collateral evidence of much weight in the case. Mitra read from the AsoJca Avaddna, an extract in which are described the means which certain Tfrthikas are said to have adopted for checking the progress of Buddhism, and persuading Yitasoka, the younger brother of Asoka, not to adoj t the religion of Buddha which his brother was promulgating, and to rise in rebellion against him. Hone among the people will be devout; none of the good S'ravakas will listen to us with respect. Should you wish for a blessed hereafter, devote yourself to the true religion. Ours is the true religion, and therefore attend to it with all respect.
IX, p. Appearing before Yitasoka, the son of Yindusara, they blessed him, and stood in front of him. Yitasoka, seeing them in front of him, saluted them, and enquired the object of their visit, ateverend sirs, what has brought you so anxious to this place? Since we have come to advise you for your good, it is meet that we should tell you all. Should you wish for a blessed hereafter, listen to our advice. Ours is the true religion, alike salutary here and hereafter. Those who know best declare it to be the best of all sys- tems of religion.
Therefore, 0 learned king, believe in it, listen to our reli- gion, and follow it with ardour. The religion of the Bauddhas is not true, for it offers no salvation mohsla. Therefore that religion should never ha listened to. Since those shaven-pated, vile destroyers of their family preach a false reli- gion, overthrowing all caste and all duty — men, devoid of the religion of the Yedas, un-Brahmanical in their conduct, and vilely passionate — they should, 0 king, on no account be respected by you.
No Bauddha should be revered, nor seen, nor touched, nor worshipped, nor spoken to, nor dwelt with in the same house, nor visited by any one. You should on no account eat with them, nor present anything to a Buddhist sanctuary. Should by delusion, one, looking at the merits of their religion, accept it, he, fallen here, will be translated to hell hereafter. Eor these reasons, 0 great king, accept not the doctrine of Buddha, but, abiding by our canons, follow the true religion with devotion.
By so doing you will here and hereafter enjoy great blessings. Listening to our words, weigh well, which is good and which is evil, and for your own advantage follow the path of duty. The GKrthikas addressed him. Now, ttis extract is from one of the works, which, according to Mr. It is probably, however, of a much later origin ; but one redaction of it was translated into the Chinese in the reign of the Western Tsin dynasty circa ,t and conse- quently the work must be admitted to be considerably older than the date of that version, audit leaves no room to doubt that at least one of the prevailing religions of the time of Asoka was that of the Tirtliikas or of the Brahmanio followers of the Vedas.
It was those Tirthis who felt most anxious about the perversion of Asoka to the faith of Buddha, and not the J ains.
They too put themselves most forward to check the evil ; they everywhere denounced Buddhism as false ; and kept numbers of the people attached to Hinduism. They again deterred the brother of Asoka from becoming a Buddha, and set up the fratricidal war which terminated so disastrously against their protege and his ancestral religion.
And if Yitasoka was a Hindu, it would be too much to say that his elder brother in his youth was a Jain, and that he had got it from his ancestors. He was therefore hardly competent to discuss the ques- tion raised by Dr. Eajendralala Mitra. Even since Mr. The President might announce to the meeting that he had received from Dr. Biihler information that he had, in conjunction with Dr. The Jain books recorded the fact that Mahavira had a disciple named Gautama, but beyond that fact little was said of him, and this would quite coincide with the supposition of his having at a later date left the school of Mahavira and set up one of his own.
As regards ethnology, I have succeeded in measuring more than individuals ; and have studied the manners, customs, creeds and languages of the different races inhabiting Rarghanah. I have collected specimens of the flora and fauna of the country, with fragments of its minerals, and have made enquiries as to the productive powers of the soil and the pro- ducts of national industry.
I have purchased all objects which appeared to me to give a fairly correct idea of this industry. Finally I have made a collection of Greek, Bactrian, Arab and other coins, and have studied the archoBological remains of the country. A few details of the results of these studies will acquaint you at once with my researches.
The country appears to be an oblong valley, of elliptical form, shut in on nearly all sides. The nucleus of this valley is surrounded with a triple ring of moun- tains of a diverse character. The centre also shows three zones entirely unlike one another. The first zone, about" the banks of the Sir Daria, the ISTarin and the Kara Daria, is nearly everywhere sandy, rarely grassy ; here and there, an oasis of verdure appears, the ephemeral existence of which is often depen- dent on storms and moving sands.
A few Usbegs and some poor Kara- Kalpaks nomadise about these inhospitable tracts. It is a succession of gardens, fields of wheat, maize, jugara, cotton, vineyards and meadows. In the same way as oases are rare in the first zone, parts covered with sands or moorland are unfrequent in the second. It is the garden of Farghana, and the tract situated between Andijan and Namangan, called Eki-su-arasi, is particularly distinguished by its incomparable fertility.
In this zone the great commercial centres of the country are to be found, such as Khokand as a Sart town much above Tashkend in every way , Marghilan the new Russian capital , Osh, Andijan and Namangan. TJsbegs and Kipchaks are the few inhabitants of this tract. It is the home of the Karakirghiz who move about there in all liberty. The sixth zone, finally, is the most elevated and the most picturesque, but at the same time the most desolate.
In this zone are situated the numerous routes, passes and defiles which lead into Semiretche, Kashgaria, Karatigin, and the government of the Syr-Baria. Lapis-lazuli amethyst, rock-crystal, naphtha, salt, coal and mineral springs are to be found there. I have, however, succeeded in finding some places which appeared rather interesting. The Takht-i-Suliman at Osh is more interesting for its picturesqueness than for its archa?
I have brought back some of the inscriptions I was able to copy. Hear Kas4n, the oldest town in Farghana, is a cemetery called Sad- pir, which contains nearly 70 tombs, all with inscriptions. This cemetery dates from upwards of years ago, when the Calmncks invaded and pillaged the country and slaughtered its richest and most notable inhabi- tants.
I have taken impressions of more than 20 inscriptions, and shall take back three stones to Tashkeiid. The Tajiks of Hasan say that they came into the country before the introduction of Islam. At 16 kilometres from Hasan there is another rather curious tomb, called Safed Boulan. Unfor- tunately there are no inscriptions about it. Finally, near Tus, not from the little village of Hauva, is another cemetery named Mazar j are in it five stones with inscriptions. I have taken impressions of three of these stones which appeared to me the finest, and which the mullahs of the place could not decijpher.
I go back to Tashkend and hope to return to Europe by Siberia. The following is some new information which should confirm the identity of the Yar-Hiu-tsang-po river of Thibet with the Brahmaputra. The river enters the country occupied by this wild tribe and passes through perpendicular rocks, precipitous and bare, without paths, and over which the only passage is by means of bad ladders made of the stems of climbing plants.
After a certain course through the Lhopas country, the river falls perpendicularly from the top of a rock into a valley the name of which he did not know. The height of the fall is so great that it makes one giddy. The details ho gave me regarding these Lhopas removes all doubt. They are the same as those Kriek, All this information per- fectly conJSrms the information I gave in my letter of the 14th June , bnt here is something further in favour of it.
Every one in Assam knows the fall of Brahmakund, whither the hea- then resort as pilgrims.
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M, Bernard has often spoken to me of it as a fall remarkable for its height, the force of its volume of water, and the hol- low it scoops out in falling. The southerly position attributed by my confrere to this vast fall, and the northerly position given to it yesterday ,by the Llama, induce me to believe that the fall at Brahmakund must be precisely the fall of the Yar-Kiu-tsang-po which then becomes the Brah- maimtra, the latter being navigable almost immediately after this addition.
My interlocutor assured me over and over again that the Yar-kiu- tsang-po did not reach so far as the ISTahong Mishmi country, but that it disappeared more to the west among the Lhopas Abors. This good Llama has also given me other geographical information. I shall only now mention those points which appear to me certain and con- firmatory of the information I had akeady received and checked some time ago.
This principality recognises the emperor of China and is governed directly by the third ambassador of Lhassa who bears the title of I-tsin. It does, not recognise in any way the Tibetan king of Lhassa. I do not know the names of the rest. This fact taken in connection with tho Llama's account seems to favour Lieut. Godwin-Austen's belief, fotmded on observations made during the Laphla Campaign, that the Suhansiri is tho continua- tion of the Sanpd. As shown on the map, however, these iiribes are a good deal to the wrest of the Suhansiri.
Thuillier — On the connection of the Brahmaputra and Sanpii, [Jatit. The red lamas are very numerous there, robbers still more so, and they often make expeditions beyond their own boundaries. Leprosy is said to be Tery common. Po-yul has as a neighbour on the west the Tibetan tribe known under the name of Kong-ba, of which Kiam- da is the principal town or city.
This country stretches almost as far as Lhassa, it is said to be very populous and f aiidy rich, but the inhabitants are very much stricken with le]; rosy.
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Another rather singular peculiarity of this country is that the proportion of girls is very much larger than that of boys in the statistics of births. When I passed along to Pomda and Zo-gong on the Bu-kio, in , every one pointed out to me the west, beyond the chain I have just mentioned, as being the true position of Poyul.? Har- man and Woodthorpe, R. Longitude, or near Lakhimpur in Assam. Harman and Woodthorpe, E.. It was unfortunate that the journey taken by the explorer Hain Sing, below or south of Lhassa, was too far west to solve this interesting and long pending doubt, but the statement made by the author of the paper now read, certainly favoured the assumption regarding the probability of the Subansiri theory.
The question, however, was altogether conjectural at present, and must remain so until more conclusive evidence is produced as to the real course of the Dibong as well as of the Subansiri upwards, or other native explorers can penetrate downwards from Lhassa to the head of the Assam valley through the Abor and Miri tribes inhabiting that renaarkably unknown and untrodden region.
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